In the UK, acts passed by Parliament in 1848, 1872, and 1875 to deal with squalor and disease and to establish a code of sanitary law.
The first act set up a Central Board of Health, which in turn imposed local boards of health in districts where the death rate was above the national average; other local boards of health could be established by petition. The local boards oversaw street cleaning, refuse collection, water supplies, and sewerage. Street paving and slum clearance began during the same period. Under the 1872 act every local authority had to appoint a medical officer of health. The 1875 act consolidated previous acts and provided a comprehensive code for public health.
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