Tsar of Russia from 1881, when he succeeded his father, Alexander II. He pursued a reactionary policy, promoting Russification and persecuting the Jews. He married Dagmar (18471928), daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and sister of Queen Alexandra of Britain, in 1866.
A protectionist economic policy enabled rapid industrial development, which resulted in a great increase in the number of industrial workers and the spread of Marxist and social democratic ideas. In foreign affairs Alexander III strictly followed the policy of peace and non-interference; towards the end of his reign the Franco-Russian rapprochement took place.
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