Band containing ionized gases in the Earth's upper atmosphere, at a height of 1501,000 km/94625 mi, above the E-layer
(formerly the Kennelly-Heaviside layer). It acts as a dependable reflector of radio signals as it is not affected by atmospheric conditions, although its ionic composition varies with the sunspot cycle.
The Appleton layer has the highest concentration of free electrons and ions of the atmospheric layers. It is named after the English physicist Edward Appleton.
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